“Why is it I get every “bug” that comes along and some people don’t seem to ever get colds or flu?”

What Challenges Your Immune System?
“Why is it I get every “bug” that comes along and some people don’t seem to ever get colds or flu?”

You Need to Know this…

There are fundamental reasons why one person stays well and another person does not. A strong immune system is one answer. For many people, cold and flu season never comes. For those same people, allergy season does not come either, because they have a strong immune system to handle those challenges. This issue of The Nutritional Essentials will give you some strategies that you can use to improve your immune system and the immune systems of all of your family members. First, let’s understand the challenges your immune systems face.

What Challenges Your Immune System?

Everything that is a stress on your body’s natural function can be a challenge to your immune system, such as:
Nutritional deficiencies brought on by improperly prepared foods, refined foods, transfats, and too much sugar!
Toxicity brought on by pollution, chemicals, preservatives and synthetic ingredients in food, basically all of the unnatural toxins.
Physical, structural and emotional stresses that deplete your system of nutrients and energy needed for growth and repair.

A Strong Immune System is a Whole Body Effort

The entire body works together to accomplish the important task of protecting your health. Virtually every aspect of your whole being is in some way involved with this process. Skin, digestive juices, mucous membranes, intestinal flora, and other healthy bacteria all work together with the organs of the immune system (the liver, spleen, blood and lymph) to help protect you. This is your immune system in action—a concerted effort of the parts for the whole. Similarly, immune system HealthBuilding is an action of the whole body as well.

The Best “Cure” for Disease is Health

Seems like a silly thing to say but nothing could be more true! Healthy people do not get sick often. People who are healthy sometimes are gifted with a strong genetic foundation, but more commonly, healthy people do the right things to build and maintain their health. This lifestyle allows their genes to express themselves as a whole body functioning in harmony. You can choose this lifestyle too! So that makes our job easy! Promote health and disease stays away, right? Simple as it sounds, it’s true!
In each issue of of “Dr. Chapa’s News You Need to Know” we speak about ways a person can build his or her health, and HealthBuilding is the key to the immune system strengths! It is highly likely you too can avoid the colds and flu seasons by merely supporting your health all year long. Let’s find out what you can do.

A strong immune system is a matter of choice!

HealthBuilding steps:

  1. Whole foods prepared properly so their natural goodness is available to your body
  2. Pure air and water
  3. Digestive enzymes to help the body assimilate the whole foods
  4. Healthy intestinal flora (probiotics) for proper assimilation and elimination of toxins
  5. Healthy liver functions – periodic purification programs
  6. Exercise and restful sleep
  7. Peaceful surroundings and a purpose for living

Avoiding These Common Pitfalls:

  1. Toxins in the environment (air, water, food)
  2. Refined foods
  3. Synthetic “foods”
  4. Most of us would look at this list and say, “I am not in ideal control of all of these HealthBuilding steps.” “What can I do to build my immune system?”

The best we can do nutritionally is:

  • Eat right and support the immune system with whole food concentrates known to be high in immune support qualities. The product we are featuring enhances the health of the immune system.

Build the health of your families’ immune system. Add immune support to your whole food supplement program!

  1. Immuplex© – The particular combination of whole food concentrates in Immuplex© uniquely supports the entire immune complex systems. For example this product supports the health of the:
  • Thymus gland for healthy lymphocyte production,
  • Spleen (lymphatic and blood) for antibodies,
  • Bone marrow for healthy blood formation,
  • Stomach (digestive system to destroy ingested parasites),
  • Intestinal flora (digestive) to destroy pathogenic microbes and manufacture B12.
  • Liver support for detoxification and enzyme production.
  1. Immuplex combines organic forms of vitamins A, C, and E with vitamin B12, and folic acid with minerals such as zinc, copper, chromium, iron, and selenium. Immuplex also contains bovine thymus, liver, and spleen tissue extracts – nutrients and glandular foods especially prepared to provide vital nutrients well known for their important roles in immune system health and function. †

Taking 1 – 3 Immuplex per day for during the cold and flu season could be one of the best immune support steps you could take.

Patients Speak About Immune Support

“I was one of those guys that no matter what it was that came around, I caught it. Colds, flu seem to never pass me by. Four years ago I started taking 3 Immuplex a day, I have not had a cold or flu since.” L.S.

What Did You Learn???

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease

A Brief Overview: Causes and Effective Solutions

What is Parkinson’s Disease (PD)?

PD is a slowly progressive, neurodegenerative disease caused when brain cells that produce dopamine, an important neurotransmitter (message-carrying chemical) which helps control body movement, are destroyed in the part of the brain known as the substantia nigra.


Symptoms generally include tremors in arms and legs, rigid muscles, slowness of movements and impaired balance. PD currently affects more than 500,000 Americans.


Solvents Increase Risk of Parkinson’s

Brief summary of medical research article published in Neurology, September 2000;55:667-673.

Exposure to common petroleum-based hydrocarbon solvents, such as paints and glues, may result in the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms as well as a more severe disease course, say Italian researchers.

“Exposure to hydrocarbon-containing solvents was detected in nearly 20% of all patients with PD in our center,” according to lead author, Dr. G. Pezzoli of the Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento in Milan, and colleagues. “The percentage increased to 30% in men, a finding to be expected in our industrial area where men predominate among the laborers with occupations at risk.”

Researchers found that those exposed to hydrocarbon solvents were an average of 3 years younger at first sign of disease symptoms and that the severity of disease symptoms was directly related to the amount of hydrocarbon exposure that was experienced.

Researchers identified 9 occupations within the study group that accounted for more than 91% of the hydrocarbon solvent exposure. The most common occupations of those exposed were petroleum, plastic and rubber workers. Other occupations found to have frequent hydrocarbon exposure were painters, engine mechanics and lithographers.

“These findings raise serious questions about specific occupational risk,” said study author Gianni Pezzoli, MD, of the Parkinson Institute in Milan, Italy. “This study more than merits further investigation into job-related Parkinson’s risk factors.


Pesticides May Increase Parkinson’s Risk

Brief summary of medical research presented at the Annual Meeting American Academy of Neurology in San Diego May 9, 2000

People exposed to pesticide (bug) sprays in the home may have a higher risk of Parkinson’s disease, an incurable neurological disorder. The study is the first to show that exposure to pesticides in the home may lead to Parkinson’s, although other studies have suggested that exposure to the chemicals at work is a risk.

The researchers studied 500 people newly diagnosed with the disease, which is characterized by tremors and problems with walking and keeping balance. People who had been exposed to pesticides were twice as likely to develop Parkinson’s disease as people not exposed to pesticides. “This study is the largest yet of newly diagnosed individuals with Parkinson’s disease. It is the first study to show a significant association between home pesticide use and the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease,” Nelson said in a statement.

Parkinson’s patients were more than two times as likely to have been exposed to insecticides in the home. People exposed to herbicides also had a higher risk.


Co-Q10 Treats Animal Models of Parkinson’s, ALS, HD

Coenzyme Q10 as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

MF Beal fbeal@mail.med.cornell.edu Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY 10021

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential cofactor of the electron transport gene as well as an important antioxidant, which is particularly effective within mitochondria. A number of prior studies have shown that CoQ10 can exert efficacy in treating patients with known mitochondrial disorders.

There researchers investigated the potential usefulness of coenzyme CoQ10 in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD). CoQ10 has been demonstrated that it can protect against striatal lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxins malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid. These toxins have been utilized to model the striatal pathology, which occurs in HD. CoQ10 also protects against 1methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity in mice. CoQ10 significantly extended survival in a transgenic mouse model of ALS.

CoQ10 can significantly extend survival, delay motor deficits and delay weight loss and attenuate the development of striatal atrophy in a transgenic mouse model of HD. In this mouse model, it showed additive efficacy when combined with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, remacemide. CoQ10 is presently being studied as a potential treatment for early PD as well as in combination with remacemide as a potential treatment for HD.


Stable DHLA

An Effective Brain and Nerve Supporting Antioxidant

DHLA (dihydrolipoic acid) is a natural antioxidant which occurs in the body in small amounts. DHLA is the only compound known in nutritional science which can quench every known free radical that is generated within the human body. Parkinson’s disease is believed to be caused, in large part, by damage from free radical damage.DHLA plays a major role in stopping and preventing free radical damage.

DHLA can also increase ATP production inside the body’s cells to enhance energy production and repair of damaged cells, including brain and nerve tissue. DHLA helps regenerate the body’s tissue levels of CoQ10, glutathione, NADH and NADHP, which affords the most broad spectrum of neurological protection of any natural compound yet discovered.

Stable DHLA: Highly Effective Nutritional Protection

A stable form of DHLA is now available for use as highly effective nutritional support. Because of the many protective and healing benefits of this amazing compound, stable DHLA is recommended as an essential part of the daily regimen of anyone who is experiencing neurodegenerative disease, including Parkinson’s disease.


These research articles clearly reveal yet one more reason to limit your exposure to chemicals, especially pesticides, glues and paints, as much as possible. On contact with skin or through inhalation, these chemicals enter your body, are absorbed and then stored. Many chemicals act like toxins that poison the body and are difficult for the body to eliminate.

If your body has become toxic (from low-grade exposure over time to many chemicals ever-present in the environment), then you may already be health-compromised with a decreased ability to remove these chemicals from your body. Chemical toxins are frequently stored in your fat and brain – which can compromise the body’s normal functioning and detoxification mechanisms, often leading to chronic brain and nerve problems such as Parkinson’s disease. Fortunately, many natural, nontoxic compounds, such as stabilized DHLA, can protect and help regenerate nerve function with highly successful outcomes. (See Nutritional Status section below.)

Avoid chemical exposure

The first step is to avoid exposure as much as possible to chemical pollutants, such as pesticides, glues, paints, solvents, liquid cleansers, cigarette smoke (which contains over 3,000 known chemicals), synthetic perfumes, spray deodorants with aluminum, foods with toxic chemicals such as aspartame, “natural flavors”, MSG, sodium benzoate, etc.

In addition, do not consider painting your home or office as a harmless event. It is best to use low volatile or no VOCs paints and plan to paint during the warmer months when you can ventilate the rooms by keeping the windows open. Afterwards, use an ionizer for 24 hours to thoroughly dissipate the vapors.

Avoid all pesticide use

Avoid all use of pesticides for the garden, lawn, etc. (whether you apply them yourself or not). Do not allow pesticide agents to be sprayed inside your house. Even if someone else applies the pesticides, you still end up breathing the vapors (including through air currents outside) or coming in contact with them by touching furniture inside your house or grass outside or anything else that has become contaminated with pesticide residues. Pesticide residues are very resistant to breaking down and degrading. Children with their developing nervous systems are particularly vulnerable to nerve damage from pesticide exposure. In addition, switch to eating a healthy diet with high amounts of organic, pesticide-free, natural whole foods.


Maximize Your Nutritional Status

Super Food Concentrates

Next, immediately begin building your nutritional status with high quality, therapeutic-grade nutrients, including Super Nutrients which have an abundance of naturally occurring vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

Immune-Boosting and Anti-Infective Agents

Boost your health by consuming a broad variety of well researched health and immune-supporting and nerve-supporting nutrients such as stable DHLA, CoQ-10, NADH, colostrum and greens mixes (nonhybrid grasses and vegetable extracts). When your body is fortified with an abundance of nutrients, it is much easier for the body to detoxify and heal itself – something simply not possible with poor or inferior nutrition.

In addition, key anti-infective agents are essential, since much of the neurodegeneration as seen in Parkinson’s disease is linked to increased levels of toxicity first with a subsequent weakening of the person’s vital immune forces, and then the nearly inevitable onslaught of infection (commonly missed on medical diagnosis). Highly effective, natural anti-infective agents are olive leaf extract, Holarrhena antidysenterica, yew needle extract, coriolus (fermented mycelial extract), soma latha, hyssop, cat’s claw, pau d’arco and much more. Unlike antibiotics, these natural agents can effectively eliminate infection from various pathways in the body without disruption of the intestinal ecology or creating further immune system stress and weakening.

Detoxify your body

It is critical to use both internal and external nutritional detoxification agents to clear stagnant, toxic pathways so the body’s immune system can begin to heal itself once again. Internally, you can begin a cleansing program which includes therapeutic quality, botanical intestinal cleansers, liver and gallbladder cleansers and kidney cleansers.

For external detoxification, you can use mud packs with moor magna (a powerful toxin-chelating agent applied to the body externally which is later rinsed off) and castor oil packs (also applied externally). These highly effective agents are safe and nontoxic and have been used for centuries in many cultures with outstanding success for chemical detoxification – thus, promoting a release of blocked areas to help the body rapidily return to health. They are easy to use, safe, inexpensive, and can be applied in the comfort of your own home. Often, a two-month regimen consisting of 2 detoxification sessions per week can result in clinically profound results. It is well known that as the body becomes more detoxified, it can operate at a higher level of metabolic efficiency and healing.

In Parkinson’s Disease, the back of the neck and the back of the head areas can become energetically “stuck” (i.e. a blocked energetic flow exists due to toxic buildup in the connective tissue and lymphatic system) – and thus, the body’s biological nerve flow and immune system surveillance have become impeded in those areas because they cannot adequately enter and detoxify these toxic, weakened areas.

The simple yet elegant external detoxification techniques (mentioned above) can be a great, lifesaving help in re-establishing adequate nerve flow and immune system function to those areas so that once again, the body can be strengthened and repair the damage in those areas.

The Liver Cleanse Drink

In Parkinson’s Disease, liver and gallbladder toxicity are common. It is important to begin liver/gallbladder cleansing methods as soon as possible. You can begin with a gentle, but effective Liver Cleanse Drink procedure, a simple, good-tasting detox cocktail taken once per week for several weeks to help gently purify the liver and gallbladder tracts. Once the liver becomes detoxified and stronger, the body’s ability to detoxify and heal itself can become much stronger.

To make the drink, use the following ingredients: 2 fresh tomatoes, 1 tbsp. extra virgin olive oil, 1 capsule turmeric; optimal: 1 clove garlic. Blend all together. Drink first thing upon arising. Wait 1/2 hour to eat other food.

Brain and nerve healing agents

Effective brain and nerve growth and regeneration agents can be excellent help, such as hericium erinaceus (shown in research to regenerate damaged nerve tissue). Other important nerve growth and rejuvenation nutritional agents are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, hosphatidylethaol-amine, carnosine and maitake.

Be sure to include these outstanding nutritional nerve support agents in your daily nutritional routine. Start the road back to your own excellent health today.

Get started today

Begin to road back to great health by detoxifying your body, boosting your immune system and to maximizing your nutrient levels for the body’s most rapid healing progress. The human body is indeed a self-healing, self-regenerating machine – but only if you give it the nutrients it needs in order for this to occur. Don’t delay – get started today on the road to natural healing and great health.

Enjoy life at its very best!

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Key Recommendations

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Key Recommendations

Antioxidants Can Prevent AD But They Must Be Food-Source

Journal of the American Medical Association, June 26, 2002; 287:3223-3237, 3261-3263

Diets rich in vitamin C and E may delay the onset of memory-robbing Alzheimer’s disease.

Free radicals that are released during normal cellular processes can be harmful to body tissues, leading to oxidative damage or stress. Experts have linked oxidative damage to many illnesses, including cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

Since antioxidants — including vitamins C and E — can neutralize free radicals, some experts believe these nutrients may help delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers found that those with the highest intake of vitamin C and vitamin E from food appeared to be the least likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease. Smokers who consumed the most beta-carotene and flavonoids (two types of antioxidants) as found in foods, also appeared to cut their Alzheimer’s risk.

Other researchers found that those with the highest dietary intake of vitamin E had the lowest risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. However, people who carried a gene known to increase Alzheimer’s risk did not see any benefit from vitamin E consumption.

Neither of the studies showed any reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer’s among people who took dietary supplements such as daily vitamin pills that contained antioxidants. The benefits only occurred when the antioxidants were consumed in the form of food.


Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia which causes loss of brain function, is one of the most costly and devastating disorders among elderly people. The number of sufferers in the United States is expected to grow from 4 million to 14 million over the next 50 years. This is a staggering number. Typical medical approaches offer no real treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

This study was funded by a drug company to draw greater awareness to the problem of Alzheimer’s disease and most likely to promote their own drug-based solution. However, medical drugs to not address the real multi-factorial cause of Alzheimer’s, including nutritional deficiencies, toxicity from environmental and chemical exposure, heavy metals from dental work and chronic infection.

Key Recommendations

(for those with Alzheimer’s disease or to help prevent Alzheimer’s):


Exercise is a very potent way to help ward off Alzheimer’s. Previous research has shown that the odds of developing Alzheimer’s were nearly quadrupled in people who were less active during their leisure time between the ages of 20 and 60 compared with their peers. Exercise is recommended several times per week (for a total of at least 3 – 5 hours per week.)

Clear toxic dental metals.

Getting the silver fillings (which are really mercury amalgams) out of your teeth is another effective strategy. But beware, don’t trade one poison for something worse. Many dental composites are considered to be more toxic than silver fillings, since they are petrochemically based.

Download years of toxic accumulation by using the ancient therapy of mud packs. This unique therapy is the use of a simple 15-minute externally applied detoxifying mud pack made from a moor concentrate that is high in humic acid and fulvic acid.These agents are known for their gentle, but highly effective, deep-seated detoxifying effects. The skin is a highly absorptive organ; when applied to the skin, the moor concentrate creates an osmotic exchange in which toxic chemicals are pulled out of the body while minerals and other nutrients are absorbed.

Avoid aluminum.

This means avoiding the use of aluminum cookware and utensils, aluminum antiperspirants, and most composite dental fillings (which contain aluminum compounds.)

Clear mercury.

Avoid and remove mercury from your diet. Also, replace your silver fillings with bio-compatible restorations as well as avoiding the consumption of most commercial fish.

Avoid flu vaccinations.

Vaccines contain toxic preservatives such as mercury. In addition, the the vaccine itself may cause severe stress to the immune system. Research shows that the concept of vaccines (i.e. the idea that they provide immunity against disease organisms) has never been adequately proven. Many elderly people have died after receiving flu vaccinations; many have experienced severe symptoms.

Stay active with your mind

Find favorite activities and do them often, such as reading books, gardening, writing, social events with others, creative activities, etc. Avoid the “TV every night” routine. We recommend a maximum of 1 1/2 hours of TV per day or a total of 10 ½ hours per week. Become a TV connoisseur; carefully select programs you want to watch rather than just watching whatever happens to be on. Record TV programs in advance so you can watch them later and have a quality program to watch. If you are watching TV more than 10 – 12 hours per week, you may be living life through your television rather than living life for yourself.

Nutritional Recommendations

In addition, include these key nutritional recommendations:

Eat More Vegetables.

Eat a diet high in fresh vegetables, both raw and cooked, focusing more on above ground vegetables (such as broccoli, zucchini, etc.) rather than below ground vegetables such as carrots, beets, etc.

Work up to eating at least 50% of your diet as raw food daily.

This includes fresh fruit, raw vegetables, delicious salads, soaked nuts and seeds, homemade raw kefir, fermented vegetables, sunflower seed cheese, etc. Try to eat some raw foods at all 3 meals.

Baseline Nutritional Support
Include Super Nutrient greens (such as blue green algae, chlorella and herbs) and grasses (including barley grass, wheat grass and oat grass) in your daily nutritional support.

Masterful Antioxidant Protection

A) Pine bark extract, rich in proanthocyanidins

B) Adaptogenic botanical agents for adrenal and hormone support, such as reishi and amla

C) Hyssop, a key herb to help clear toxicity, protect cells and boost immune function

D) CoQ-10 (natural-source; not synthetic CoQ-10) to help protect cellular integrity and function

Immune Support and Lymphatic Clearance

Reishi, olive leaf extract, propolis, flower pollen.

X-Rays, Cancer and Heart Disease

X-Rays, Cancer and Heart Disease

by John Gofman, M.D., Ph.D.

John Gofman, M.D., Ph.D., is one of the leading experts in the world in these issues. He is a nuclear physicist and a medical doctor.
The evidence presented in his book, Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, strongly indicates that over 50% of the death-rate from cancer today, and over 60% of the death-rate from Ischemic Heart Disease today, are x-ray-induced.
The finding means that x-rays (including fluoroscopy and CT scans) have become a necessary co-actor — but not the only necessary co-actor — in causing most of the death-rate from cancer and from Ischemic Heart Disease (also called Coronary Heart Disease, and Coronary Artery Disease).
In multi-cause diseases such as cancer and ischemic heart disease, more than one necessary co-actor per fatal case is very likely. Absence of any necessary co-actor, by definition, prevents such cases. The concept of x-ray-induced cases means cases which would be absent in the absence of exposure to x-rays.
X-rays and other classes of ionizing radiation have been, for decades, a proven cause of virtually all types of mutations — especially structural chromosomal mutations (such as deletions, translocations, and rings), for which the doubling dose by x-rays is extremely low. Additionally, x-rays are an established cause of genomic instability, often a characteristic of the most aggressive cancers.
Not surprisingly, a host of epidemiologic studies have firmly established that x-rays and other classes of ionizing radiation are a cause of most varieties of human cancer. We have a high level of confidence that our findings, about the important causal role of medical radiation in both cancer and IHD, are correct.
Reduction of exposure to medical radiation can and will reduce mortality rates — from cancer with certainty, and with very great probability from Ischemic Heart Disease too.

Part 2. Some Key Facts about X-rays and Ionizing Radiation in General

Most physicians and other people appreciate the imaging capability of the x-ray, but — through no fault of their own — they are taught very little about the biological action of those x-rays which never reach the film or other imagereceptor.
Capacity To Commit Mayhem Among The Genetic Molecules
The biological damage from a medical x-ray procedure does not come directly from the x-ray photons. The damage comes from electrons, which those photons “kick” out of their normal atomic orbits within human tissues. Endowed with biologically unnatural energy by the photons, such electrons leave their atomic orbits and travel with high speed and high energy through their home cells and neighboring cells.
Each such electron gradually slows down, as it unloads portions of its biologically unnatural energy, at irregular intervals, onto various biological molecules along its primary track (path).
The molecular victims include, of course, chromosomal DNA, and the structural proteins of chromosomes, and water. Even though each energy-deposit transfers only a portion of the total energy of a high-speed high-energy electron, the single deposits very often have energies far exceeding any energy-transfer which occurs in a natural biochemical reaction. Such energy-deposits are more like grenades and small bombs.
The Free-Radical Fallacy
There is no doubt that, along the path of each high-speed high-energy electron described above, the energy-deposits produce various species of free radicals. Nonetheless, it is a demonstrated fallacy to assume equivalence between the biological potency of x-rays and the biological potency of the free radicals which are routinely produced by a cell’s own natural metabolism.
The uniquely violent and concentrated energy-transfers, resulting from x-rays, are simply absent in a cell’s natural biochemistry. As a result of these “grenades” and “small bombs,” both strands of opposing DNA can experience a level of mayhem far exceeding the damage, which metabolic free-radicals (and most other chemical species) generally inflict upon a comparable segment of the DNA double helix.
Ionizing Radiation: A Uniquely Potent Mutagen
The extra level of mayhem is what makes x-rays (and other types of ionizing radiation) uniquely potent mutagens. Cells cannot correctly repair every type of complex genetic damage, induced by ionizing radiation, and sometimes cells cannot repair such damage at all. Not all mutated cells die, of course. If they all died, there would be very little cancer and no inherited afflictions. Indeed, certain mutations confer a proliferative advantage on the mutated cells. Exposure to x-rays is a proven cause of genomic instability — a characteristic of many of the most aggressive cancers.
Unlike some other mutagens, x-rays have access to the genetic molecules of every internal organ, if the organ is within the x-ray beam. Within such organs, even a single high-speed high-energy electron, set into motion by an x-ray photon, has a chance (far from a certainty) of inducing the types of damage which defy repair. That is why there is no risk-free (no safe) dose-level.
There is widespread agreement that, by its very nature, ionizing radiation at any dose-level can induce particularly complex injuries to the genetic molecules. There is growing mainstream acknowledgment that cellular repair processes are fallible, or entirely absent, for various complex injuries to the genetic molecules.
The Very Low Doubling-Dose for X-ray-Induced Chromosomal Mutations
The inability of human cells, to repair correctly every type of radiation-induced chromosomal damage, has been demonstrated in nuclear workers (who received their extra low-dose radiation at minimal dose-rates) and in numerous studies of x-ray-irradiated human cells at low doses.
Besides demonstrating non-repair or imperfect repair, such studies have established that x-rays have an extremely low doubling-dose for structural chromosomal mutations. (The doubling dose of an effect is the dose which adds a frequency equal to the preexisting frequency of that effect.)
For instance, the doubling-dose for the dicentric mutation is in the dose range delivered by some common x-ray procedures, such as CT scans and fluoroscopy — i.e., in the dose range of 2 to 20 rads. The rad is a dose-unit which is identical to the centi-gray. We, and many others, prefer the simpler name: Rad.
X-rays are capable of causing virtually every known kind of mutation — from the very common types to the very complex types, from deletions of single nucleotides, to chromosomal deletions of every size and position, and chromosomal rearrangements of every type. When such mutations are not cell-lethal, they endure and accumulate with each additional exposure to x-rays or other ionizing radiation.

Medical X-rays as a Proven Cause of Human Cancer

Ionizing radiation is firmly established by epidemiologic evidence as a proven cause of almost every major type of human cancer. Some of the strongest evidence comes from the study of medical patients exposed to x-rays — even at minimal dose-levels per exposure.

Mounting mainstream evidence indicates that medical x-rays are 2 to 4 times more mutagenic than high-energy beta and gamma rays, per rad of exposure.

No Doubt about Benefits from Medical Radiation
Radiation was introduced into medicine almost immediately after discovery of the x-ray (by Wilhelm Roentgen) in 1895.
There is simply no doubt that the use of radiation in medicine has many benefits. The findings in this book provide no argument against medical radiation. The findings do provide a powerful argument for acquiring all the benefits of medical radiation with the use of much lower doses of radiation, in both diagnostic and interventional radiology. (Interventional radiology refers primarily, but not exclusively, to the use of fluoroscopy to acquire information during surgery and during placement of catheters, needles, and other devices.).
Within the professions of radiology and radiologic physics, there are mainstream experts who have shown how the dosage of x-rays in current practice could be cut by 50%, or by considerably more, in diagnostic and interventional radiology — without any loss of information and without eliminating a single procedure.

Role of Medical Radiation in Causing Cancer and IHD, Past and Present

This monograph has produced evidence with regard to two hypotheses.
Medical radiation is a highly important cause (probably the principal cause) of cancer mortality in the United States during the Twentieth Century. Medical radiation means, primarily but not exclusively, exposure by x-rays — including fluoroscopy and CT scans. (Hypothesis-1 is about causation of cancer, so it is silent about radiation-therapy used after a Cancer has been diagnosed.).
Medical radiation, received even at very low and moderate doses, is an important cause of death from Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD); the probable mechanism is radiation-induced mutations in the coronary arteries, resulting in dysfunctional clones (mini-tumors) of smooth muscle cells. (The kinds of damage to the heart and its vessels, observed from very high-dose radiation and reported for decades, seldom resemble the lesions of IHD).
These Hypotheses in Terms of Multi-Cause Diseases
Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease are well established as multi-cause diseases. In efforts to prevent these multicause diseases, reduction or removal of any necessary co-actor is a central goal. The evidence in this book is that medical radiation has become a necessary co-actor in a high fraction of the U.S. mortality rates from both diseases. Fortunately, dosage from medical radiation is demonstrably reducible without eliminating a single procedure.
During the 1985-1990 period, the number of diagnostic medical x-ray examinations performed per year in the USA was approximately 200 million, excluding 100 million dental x-ray examinations and 6.8 million diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations.
The source of these estimates warns that 200 million could be an underestimate by up to sixty percent.
Not only is the number of annual examinations quite uncertain, but the average doses per examination — in actual practice, not measured with a dummy during ideal practice — vary sometimes by many-fold from one facility to another, even for patients of the same size. The variation by facility has been established by a few on-site surveys of selected facilities, because measurement and recording of x-ray doses are not required for actual procedures.
Fluoroscopy is a major source of x-ray dosage, because the x-ray beam stays “on” during

fluoroscopy. Such doses are rarely measured.
When fluoroscopic x-rays are used during common diagnostic examinations, the total dose delivered varies with the operator. When fluoroscopic x-rays are used during surgery and other nondiagnostic procedures, the total dose delivered varies both with the operator and the particular circumstances.
Our monograph is essentially the first, large prospective study on induction of fatal Ischemic Heart Disease by medical radiation. The results are stunning in their strength. Such strong dose-response relationships do not occur by accident.

Our Unified Model of Atherogenesis and Acute IHD Events

Our view (shared by many others) is that the plasma lipoproteins have no physiologic function in the intimal layer of the coronary arteries, and that under normal circumstances, their rate of entry and exit from the intimal layer is in balance. We propose that what disrupts this lifelong egress of lipoproteins from the intima — with the disruption occurring only at specific locations — are mutations acquired from medical radiation and from other mutagens.
In our Unified Model, some mutations acquired by smooth muscle cells render such cells dysfunctional and give such cells a proliferative advantage — so that they gradually replace competent smooth muscle cells at a localized patch of artery (a mini-tumor). And this patch of cells, unable to process lipoproteins correctly, becomes the site of chronic inflammation, resulting in construction of an atherosclerotic plaque — whose fibrous cap is sometimes too fragile to contain the highly thrombogenic lipid-core within the plaque.
A Personal Word: The X-ray Deserves Its Honored Place in Health
The finding, that radiation from medical procedures is a major cause of both Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, does not argue against the use of x-rays, CT scans, fluoroscopy, and radioisotopes in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Such uses also make very positive contributions to health. We deeply respect those contributions, and the men and women who achieve them.
This author is most definitely not “anti-x-ray” or “radio-phobic.” As a graduate student in physical chemistry, I worked very intimately with radiation, in the quest for the first three atomic-bombs. Subsequently, in medical school, I considered becoming a radiologist. In the late 1940s, I did nuclear medicine with patients having a variety of hematological disorders. In the 1960s, I did chemical elemental analysis of human blood by x-ray spectroscopy. In the early 1970s, our group at the Livermore National Laboratory induced genomic instability in human cells with gamma rays.
In short, I fully appreciate the benefits and insights (in medicine and other fields) which ionizing radiation makes possible.
But no one honors the x-ray by treating it casually or by failing to acknowledge that it is a uniquely potent mutagen. One honors the x-ray by taking it seriously.
While doses from diagnostic and interventional radiology are very low relative to doses used for cancer therapy, diagnostic and interventional x-ray doses today are far from negligible. The widely used CT scans, and the common diagnostic examinations which use fluoroscopy, and interventional fluoroscopy (e.g., during surgery), deliver some of the largest nontherapeutic doses of x-rays. In 1993, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation warned, appropriately, in its Annual Report:
“Although the doses from diagnostic x-ray examinations are generally relatively low, the magnitude of the practice makes for a significant radiological impact.”
In the USA until about 1970, fetal irradiation occurred during ~ 1 pregnancy per 14.

Every Benefit of Medical Radiation: Same Procedures, Lower Dose-Levels
The fact that ionizing radiation is a uniquely potent mutagen, and the finding that radiation from medical procedures is a major cause of both Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, clearly indicate that it would be appropriate in medicine to treat dosage of ionizing radiation at least as carefully as we treat dosage from potent medications. In the medical professions, we do not administer unmeasured doses of powerful pharmaceuticals, and we do not take a casual view of a 5-fold, 10-fold, even 20-fold elevation in dosage of such medications.
By contrast, in both the past and the present, unmeasured doses of x-rays are the rule — not the exception. When sampling has been done, in which actual measurements are taken, dosage has been found to vary from one facility to another by many-fold, for the same procedure for patients of the same size.
The reason for large variation is obvious from the list of numerous proven ways to reduce dosage. Facilities which apply all the measures can readily achieve average doses more than 5-fold lower than facilities which apply very few measures.
Certain Spinal X-rays: A Dramatic Demonstration
The potential for dose-reduction may far exceed 5-fold for some common x-ray exams. This has already been demonstrated for the spinal x-rays employed to monitor progress in treating idiopathic adolescent scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine. An estimated 5% of American children, or more, have this disorder. In a most responsible way, Dr. Joel Gray and coworkers at the Mayo Clinic developed radiologic techniques for scoliosis monitoring which can reduce measured x-ray dose to various organs as follows:
Abdominal exposure: 8-fold reduction.
Thyroid exposure: 20-fold reduction (with a back to front radiograph), and 100-fold reduction (with a lateral radiograph).
Breasts: 69-fold reduction (with a back to front radiograph), and 55-fold reduction (with a lateral radiograph).
They report, “These reductions in exposure were obtained without significant loss in the quality of the radiographs and in most instances, with an improvement in the over-all quality of the radiograph due to the more uniform exposure.

Mammography: A Model of Success

The importance of dose-reduction for the mammographic examination has been recognized, and such doses have been reduced by about a factor of ten in recent years. “Where there is a will, there is a way.” In certified mammography centers today, doses are routinely verified periodically, and measurements provide the feedback required, in order to achieve constant dose-reduction instead of upward creep.
The Benefits of Every Procedure — with Far Less Dose
Dose-reduction can be a truly safe measure. It is clear that average per patient doses from diagnostic and interventional radiology could be reduced by a great deal without reducing the medical benefits of the procedures in any way.
Radiography: Quality-assurance (dose-reduction by an average factor of 2), beam-collimation (by a factor up to 3), rare-earth screens (by a factor of 2 to 4), rare-earth filtration (by a factor of 2 to 4), use of carbon-fibre materials (by a factor of 2), gonadal shielding (by a factor of 2 to 10 for the gonads).
Digital Radiography: Decrease in contrast resolution, when such resolution is not needed (dose-reduction by a factor of 2 to 3), use of a pulsed system (by a factor of 2).
Fluoroscopy: Changes in the operator’s technique (dose-reduction by a factor of 2 to 10), variable aperture iris on TV camera (by a factor of 3), high and low dose-switching (by a factor of 1.5), acoustic signal related to dose-rate (by a factor of 1.3), use of a 105mm camera (by a factor of 4 to 5). Additional methods not specified in the list: Use of a circular beam-collimator when the image-receiver is circular, adoption of “freeze-frame” or “last-image-hold capability, and restraint in recording fluoroscopic images.
An Immense Opportunity: All Benefit, No Risk
The evidence in this monograph, on an age-adjusted basis, is that most fatal cases of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease would not happen as they do, in the absence of x-ray-induced mutations. We look forward to responses to our findings.
We have also presented findings, from outside sources, that average per patient radiation doses from diagnostic and interventional radiology could be reduced by a great deal, without reducing the medical benefits of the procedures in any way. The same procedures can be done at substantially lower dose-levels.
Does the Public Need a Denial, “For Its Own Good” ?
One type of response to this monograph may be that the findings need to be denied immediately (without
examination), lest the public refuse to accept the benefits of x-ray procedures.
This type of response, insulting to the public, would not be consistent with reality. In reality, the public accepts a host of dangerous medications and procedures, in exchange for their demonstrable benefits — sometimes, for undemonstrated benefits. Very few people will forego the obvious benefits from diagnostic and interventional radiology, just because such procedures confer a risk of subsequent Cancer and IHD.
The only change will probably be that people will demand that the same degree of care, now exercised with respect to dosage of potent medications, be exercised with respect to dosage of radiation from each procedure. They will want to avoid a dose-level of, say, ten rads — if the same information could be acquired with one rad. They do not deserve”one useful part of information, and nine unnecessary parts of extra risk of Cancer and IHD.” Patients will want more measurements, and fewer assumptions, about the doses delivered. But they will not reject the procedures themselves.
The “Advocacy Issue” and the Hippocratic Oath
It is very often said that, if scientists advocate any action based on their findings, they undermine their scientific credibility. If such scientists stand to benefit financially from the actions they advocate, such suspicion occurs naturally. But even in such circumstances, if their work is presented in a way which anyone can replicate, it should be impossible for their advocacy to diminish the scientific credibility of their work.
Our findings are not encumbered either by financial interests or by any barriers to replication. The findings stand on their own, whether or not we advocate any action.
I have spent a lifetime studying the causes of Ischemic Heart Disease, and then Cancer, in order to help prevent such diseases. So it would be pure hypocrisy for me to feign a lack of interest in any preventive action which would be both safe and benign. And when sources, completely independent from me, set forth their findings that such action is readily feasible — namely, significant dose-reduction in diagnostic and interventional radiology — it would be worse than silly for me to pretend that I have no idea what action should occur.
After all, as a physician, I took the Hippocratic Oath: “First, do no harm.” Silence would contribute to the harm of millions of people. Why Wait? What Is the Purpose?
Although it is commonly assumed that radiation doses are “negligible” from modern medical procedures, the assumption is definitely mistaken.
An estimated 35% to 50% of some higher-dose diagnostic procedures are currently received by patients below age 45 — when the carcinogenic impact per dose-unit is probably stronger than it is after age 65 or so.
In diagnostic and interventional radiology, dose-reduction would be wholly safe, quite inexpensive, and guaranteed beneficial — because induction of Cancer by ionizing radiation has been an established fact for decades.

A Mountain of Solid Evidence That Each Dose Matters
The fact, that x-ray doses are so seldom measured, reflects the false assumption that such doses do not matter. This monograph has presented a mountain of solid evidence that they do matter, enormously.
And each bit of additional dose matters, because any x-ray photon may be the one which sets in motion the highspeed high-energy electron which causes a carcinogenic or atherogenic mutation. Such mutations rarely disappear. The higher their accumulated number in a population, the higher will be the population’s mortality-rates from radiation-induced Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease.
The x-ray is a proven mutagen and a proven cause of Cancer, and the evidence in this book strongly indicates that it is also a very important cause of Cancer and a very important atherogen. From the existing evidence, it is clear that average per patient doses from diagnostic and interventional radiology could be reduced by a great deal without reducing the medical benefits of the procedures in any way.
A Prudent Position from Which No One Loses, Everyone Gains
Whether diseases are common or rare, a prime reason for studying their causation is prevention. Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, combined, accounted for 45% of all deaths in the USA during 1993.
If we in the medical professions take the position, that we should not press for reducing doses from medical radiation until every question has been perfectly answered, then we can never undo the harm inflicted during the waiting period, upon tens of millions of patients every year.
By contrast, if we take the prudent position that dose-reduction should become a high priority without delay (and if humans do not start exposing themselves to some other potent mutagen), the evidence in this monograph indicates that we will prevent much of the future mortality from Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, without causing any adverse effects on health. No one loses, everyone gains.

Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease

Dr. Gofman’s credentials are astounding. Not only does he have a Ph.D. in nuclear and physical chemistry, but he is also a medical doctor. While a graduate student at U.C. Berkeley, Gofman earned his Ph.D. (1943) in nuclear/physical chemistry, with his dissertation on the discovery of Pa-232, U-232, Pa-233, and U-233, the proof that U-233 is fissionable by slow and fast neutrons, and discovery of the 4n + 1 radioactive series. His faculty advisor was Glenn T. Seaborg (who became Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1961-1971).
Post-doctorally, Gofman continued research related to the first atomic bombs, particularly the chemistry of plutonium, at a time when the world’s total supply was less than 0.25 milligram. He shares patents #2,671,251 and #2,912,302 on two processes for separating plutonium from the uranium and fission products of irradiated nuclear fuel.
After the plutonium work, Gofman completed medical school (1946) at UCSF. In 1947, following his internship in Internal Medicine, Gofman joined the faculty at U.C. Berkeley (Division of Medical Physics), where he began his research on lipoproteins and Coronary Heart Disease at the Donner Laboratory.
In 1954, Gofman received the Modern Medicine Award for outstanding contributions to heart disease research. In 1965, he received the Lyman Duff Lectureship Award of the American Heart Association, for his research in atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease. In 1972, he shared the Stouffer Prize for outstanding contributions to research in arteriosclerosis. In 1974, the American College of Cardiology selected him as one of twenty-five leading researchers in cardiology of the past quarter-century.

Meanwhile, in the early 1960s, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) asked Gofman to establish a Biomedical Research Division at the AEC’s Livermore National Laboratory, for the purpose of evaluating the health effects of all types of nuclear activities.
From 1963-1965, Gofman served as the division’s first director and concurrently as an Associate Director of the full laboratory. Then he stepped down from the administrative activities in order to have more time for his own laboratory research on Cancer and chromosomes (the Boveri Hypothesis), on radiation-induced chromosomal mutations and genomic instability, and for his analytical work on the epidemiologic data from the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors and other irradiated human populations.
By 1969, Gofman and a Livermore colleague, Dr. Arthur R. Tamplin, had concluded that human exposure to ionizing radiation was much more serious than previously recognized.
Because of this finding, Gofman and Tamplin spoke out publicly against two AEC programs which they had
previously accepted. One was Project Plowshare, a program to explode hundreds or thousands of underground nuclear bombs in the Rocky Mountains in order to liberate (radioactive) natural gas, and to use nuclear explosives also to excavate harbors and canals. The second was the plan to license about 1,000 commercial nuclear power plants (USA) as quickly as possible. In 1970, Gofman and Tamplin proposed a 5-year moratorium on that activity.
The AEC was not pleased. Seaborg recounts some of the heated conversations among the Commissioners in his book, The Atomic Energy Commission under Nixon: Adjusting to Troubled Times (1993). By 1973, Livermore de-funded Gofman’s laboratory research on chromosomes and Cancer. He returned to teaching full-time at U.C. Berkeley, until choosing an early and active “retirement” in order to concentrate fully on pro-bono research into human health-effects from radiation.
His 1981, 1985, 1990, 1994, and 1995/96 books present a series of findings. His 1990 book includes his proof, “by any reasonable standard of biomedical proof,” that there is no threshold level (no harmless dose) of ionizing radiation with respect to radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis — a conclusion supported in 1995 by a government-funded radiation committee. His 1995/96 book provides evidence that medical radiation is a necessary cofactor in about 75% of the recent and current Breast Cancer incidence (USA), a conclusion doubted but not at all refuted by several peer reviewers.